Fortinet has announced the latest semiannual FortiGuard Labs Global Threat Landscape Report. Threat intelligence from the first half of 2021 demonstrates a significant increase in the volume and sophistication of attacks targeting individuals, organisations, and increasingly critical infrastructure. The expanding attack surface of hybrid workers and learners, in and out of the traditional network, continues to be a target. Timely collaboration and partnership momentum across law enforcement, as well as public and private sectors, is an opportunity to disrupt the cybercriminal ecosystem going into the second half of 2021.
Highlights of the 1H 2021 report follow:
1) Ransomware Is About Much More Than Just Money: FortiGuard Labs data shows average weekly ransomware activity in June 2021 was more than tenfold higher than levels from one year ago. This demonstrates a consistent and overall steady increase over a year period. Attacks crippled the supply chains of multiple organisations, in particular sectors of critical importance, and impacted daily life, productivity, and commerce more than ever before. Organisations in the telecommunications sector were the most heavily targeted followed by government, managed security service providers, automotive, and manufacturing sectors. In addition, some ransomware operators shifted their strategy away from email-initiated payloads to focusing on gaining and selling initial access into corporate networks further showing the continued evolution of Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) fueling cybercrime. A key takeaway is that ransomware remains a clear and present danger for all organisations regardless of industry or size. Organisations need to take a proactive approach with real-time endpoint protection, detection, and automated response solutions to secure environments along with a zero-trust access approach, network segmentation, and encryption.
3) Botnet Trends Show Attackers Push to the Edge: Tracking the prevalence of botnet detections showed surge inactivity. At the beginning of the year, 35 per cent of organisations detected botnet activity of one sort or another, and six months later it was 51per cent. A large bump in TrickBot activity is responsible for the overall spike in botnet activity during June. TrickBot originally emerged on the cybercrime scene as a banking trojan but has since been developed into a sophisticated and multi-stage toolkit supporting a range of illicit activities. Mirai was the most prevalent overall; it overtook Gh0st in early 2020 and has reigned ever since well into 2021. Mirai has continued adding new cyberweapons to its arsenal, but it is likely that Mirai’s dominance at least still partially stems from criminals seeking to exploit Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices used by work-from-home or learning-from-home individuals. Gh0st is also noticeably active, which is a remote access botnet that allows attackers to take full control of the infected system, capture live webcam and microphone feeds, or download files. More than a year into remote work and learning shifts, cyber adversaries continue to target our evolving daily habits to exploit the opportunity. To protect networks and applications, organisations need zero-trust access approaches to provide the least access privileges to secure against IoT endpoints and devices entering the network.
4) Disruption of Cybercrime Shows Reduced Threat Volumes: In cybersecurity, not every action has an immediate or lasting effect, but several events in 2021 show positive developments specifically for defenders. The original developer of TrickBot was arraigned on multiple charges in June. Also, the coordinated takedown of Emotet, one of the most prolific malware operations in recent history, as well as actions to disrupt the Egregor, NetWalker, and Cl0p ransomware operations represent significant momentum by cyber defenders, including global governments and law enforcement to curb cybercrime. In addition, the level of attention that some attacks garnered spooked a few ransomware operators to announce they were ceasing operations. FortiGuard Labs’ data showed a slowdown of threat activity following the Emotet takedown. Activity related to TrickBot and Ryuk variants persisted after the Emotet botnet was taken offline, but it was at a reduced volume. This is a reminder of how hard it is to eradicate cyber threats or adversary supply chains immediately, but these events are important achievements regardless.
5) Defensive Evasion and Privilege Escalation Techniques Favored by Cybercriminals: Studying higher resolution threat intelligence reveals valuable takeaways about how attack techniques are evolving currently. FortiGuard Labs analysed the specific functionality inherent to detected malware by detonating the samples to observe what the intended outcome was for cyber adversaries. The result was a list of negative things malware would have accomplished if the attack payloads had been executed in target environments. This shows cyber adversaries sought to escalate privileges, evade defences, move laterally across internal systems, and exfiltrate compromised data, among other techniques. For example, 55 per cent of observed privilege escalation functionality leveraged hooking and 40 per cent utilised process injection. A takeaway is that there is an obvious focus on defence evasion and privilege escalation tactics. Although these techniques are not novel, defenders will be better positioned to secure against future attacks, armed with this timely knowledge. Integrated and artificial intelligence (AI)-driven platform approaches, powered by actionable threat intelligence, are essential to defend across all edges and to identify and remediate shifting threats organisations face today in real-time.
Partnership, Training, and AI-powered Prevention, Detection, and Response Is Vital
While government and law enforcement agencies have taken actions relative to cybercrime in the past, the first half of 2021 could be a game-changer in terms of the momentum for the future. They are working with industry vendors, threat intelligence organisations, and other global partnership organisations to combine resources and real-time threat intelligence to take direct action against cyber adversaries. Regardless, automated threat detection and AI remain essential to enable organisations to address attacks in real time and to mitigate attacks at speed and scale across all edges. In addition, cybersecurity user awareness training is as important as ever with anyone being a target of cyberattacks. Everyone needs regular instruction on best practices to keep individual employees and the organisation secure.
This latest Global Threat Landscape Report is a view representing the collective intelligence of FortiGuard Labs, drawn from Fortinet’s vast array of sensors collecting billions of threat events observed around the world during the first half of 2021. Similar to how the MITRE ATT&CK framework classifies adversary tactics, techniques, and procedures with the first three groupings spanning reconnaissance, resource development, and initial access, the FortiGuard Labs Global Threat Landscape Report leverages this model to describe how threat actors find vulnerabilities, build malicious infrastructure, and exploit their targets. The report also covers global and regional perspectives as well.